For many business owners, building their successful businesses began by accurately determining what they had. Whether their businesses provide products, services, or ideas, the success they experienced didn’t come to them blindly. It likely took years of refinement, study, and analysis to figure out the best way to establish and deliver the thing that makes the business successful. The same is true when discussing business exits.
As owners set their business exit goals, they may find that the resources that they currently have do not allow a financially independent business exit. That is, if those owners were to exit their businesses with their current resources, they would likely need to go back to work at some point to stay personally solvent. For those owners, a business exit is less a retirement and more of a headfirst dive into a pool of new challenges and opportunities. When they dive headfirst into that new phase, they want to make sure there’s enough water in the pool to keep them afloat after they’ve jumped.
With the new year upon us, many people have begun their journeys to fulfill their New Year’s resolutions. For business owners, it’s no different. Between creating goals for the business to achieve and assuring that the business keeps growing, owners will have much to consider this year. One of the goals most commonly shared by owners is to successfully exit their businesses over the next 10 years. Most business owners have a sense of how much longer they want to remain as owners of their businesses, and the new year is a perfect time to take control of the planning that can make the future successful.
Business owners commonly associate Exit Planning with estate planning, and they aren’t too far off. Good Exit Plans and estate plans both aim to assure that the owner’s family is provided for after the owner is gone. Both an Exit Plan and an estate plan might address a transfer of ownership to an intended recipient following the death of the business owner.
But one thing that owners may overlook when committing to estate planning is the notion of transferable value. While transferring ownership can be relatively straightforward, creating transferable value so that an ownership interest carries the benefits the owner hopes for can be a greater challenge. Transferable value is the value a company has without its owner, and it’s incredibly important to consider when we are looking at what ownership is expected to provide once it’s transferred through an Exit Plan or estate plan.
It’s this aspect that makes estate planning a small but significant slice of a larger planning pie.
As owners approach their business exits, one topic that’s often overlooked is unexpected death or permanent incapacitation. One reason owners gloss over this topic is because it injects an uncontrollable element into a controlled process. Many successful business owners take pride in the control they have over guiding their businesses toward success, so the idea that all of that hard work can be dashed by death without warning is unsettling. But consider the following case study:
Bud Brown, an Exit Planning Advisor, woke up early on a Monday morning with great anticipation. He and one of his clients, Bruce Delany—a successful business owner and longtime friend—were preparing to receive an offer from a third-party buyer. As Bud finished tying his tie, his phone rang: It was Bruce’s wife, Dolores. He answered with a warm, “Good morning, Dolores. Excited about today?”
We often hear owners say they want to transfer their businesses to third-party buyers when they first encounter the concept of Exit Planning. However, we’ve observed that in many completed Exit Plans, owners actually choose to transfer their businesses to employees. Some reasons for this decision include employees knowing the culture and values of the business, a desire to keep the business with people the owner knows and trusts, and employees’ inherent desire and commitment to grow the business.
As owners start to consider options that include transferring to employees, they can forget to ask two important questions:
1. Do the employees I want to succeed me even want my ownership?
2. If so, how can I motivate each employee to stay and make the financial commitment?
Your love and enthusiasm for your company can cause you to skip these critical first questions. What may seem like a good fit to you can lead to chaos if the most important employees (often referred to as “key employees”) cannot, will not, or just don’t want to accept ownership. Fortunately, there are three things you can do to address this issue.
For some business owners, a third-party sale is their best option for a successful business exit. Third-party sales are popular because owners often believe they can get the most money from their businesses in as little time as possible from a third-party buyer. They might be right. But what they may not consider is how little control they have over their businesses, their schedules, and even their futures once the third-party sale process begins. Consider the following case study:
After 35 years of building a successful manufacturing company, which employed about 100 people, Lemont Lemieux was ready to retire. Always a do-it-yourselfer, Lemont had hired a business valuation specialist; found an interested buyer; assembled a deal team consisting of a business broker, deal attorney, and his company’s CPA; and, most importantly, told his wife, Trinity, about his intentions to sell to an outside buyer long before he began the process. Neither of their children had any interest in the business, and Lemont and Trinity were ready to travel.
It’s likely that few people, if any, have ever told you, “You need to make yourself less important,” regarding your business. But sophisticated buyers look for businesses that can operate without their owners. Unless your goal is to sell or transfer your business, and then stay with the business as a subordinate to assure a smooth transition, you’ll need to train a management staff that can run the business without you. This is the most important Value Driver you’ll install, and for many owners, it’s the hardest, because they aren’t prepared to expend the emotional and mental energy required to remove themselves from their businesses.
There are countless technical strategies to making yourself inconsequential to your business, many of which we’ve discussed in previous newsletters. But just as important as the technical aspects are the mental and emotional aspects, so let’s look at some of the common mental and emotional roadblocks you might face as you make yourself inconsequential.
Many owners and advisors talk about the importance of growing business value, and there are nearly unlimited options to help business owners do just that. But wouldn’t you agree that growing business value is pointless if you don’t know how to reduce the threats to that growth? As you prepare for an eventual exit from your business, there are several threats to business value that you need to be aware of:
· Key employees leaving the company and competing by taking customers, employees, and/or trade secrets.
· Key employees dying or otherwise leaving without a replacement.
· Data security breaches.
· Uninsured casualty loss.
· Fraud and embezzlement.
· Losses from high-risk operations.
· Any number of other economic, industry, or internal threats.
A fundamental aspect of a successful business exit is assuring that your business has enough value to allow you to exit with financial security. This, coupled with wisely invested non-business assets, gives you the best chance to pursue the Exit Path you want on the timeline you want. Obtaining a proper, professional business valuation is the first step in determining how much your company is worth, but what happens if the valuation shows that your business isn’t worth enough to allow you to exit your business with financial security? How can you increase your business’ value if everything that’s made it successful thus far isn’t enough?
The answer lies in installing Value Drivers.
Cash flow is one of the most important factors in a business exit. Today, we look at why securing a professional estimate of your company’s cash flow is crucial to the success of your Exit Plan. All buyers, whether an outside third party or an insider (family member, co-owner, or key employee), will use cash flow as a way of measuring or confirming the value of the companies they buy.
While there are many definitions of cash flow, the one that we often use is free cash flow. Free cash flow is the portion of the annual net cash flow from operating activities that remains available for discretionary purposes after the business has met its basic financial obligations. In this discussion, the “discretionary purpose” is the buyer’s purchase of or return on investment for the owner’s interest in the company.
Setting goals is critically important to owners who begin Exit Planning. Without goals, even the strongest processes fail, because they have no purpose to work toward. Your goals are what guide your process toward a successful exit, and without them, you’ll find yourself spinning your wheels in the mud of indecision.
While setting goals is the most important thing you do as you begin your business exit journey, it doesn’t mean that you have to know exactly where you’ll end up after you exit your business. Goals can and often must change to give you the best chance to exit your business on your terms. Business exits are rarely all-or-nothing propositions. Having the foresight to set actionable goals combined with the flexibility to change them when necessary gives you the freedom to pursue your vision of a successful business exit.
Let’s look at three reasons why setting goals is so important, even though they might change.
You know how things work in terms of starting and running a successful business. You’ve hired the right people, offered a useful product or service, and developed high-quality relationships with your customers and vendors. None of these things magically appeared out of thin air: You most likely followed a proven process, mixed in with your own creative problem solving, to build a successful business. The same adherence to process that applies to starting and running a successful business applies to a successful business exit.
Whether you’re looking to exit your business in 10 months, 10 years, or never, one fact governs them all: All business owners—even the hardest working, most dedicated workaholics—will exit their businesses someday. Whether by choice, death, or otherwise, you need to be able to answer the question, “What will happen to me, my business, and my family upon my business exit?” While this may seem like a heady, rhetorical question, the consequences of planning have real effects on the things you care about most. How can you address this question with a concrete, actionable answer?
A successful business Exit Plan achieves three important owner goals:
1. Financial Security: The business sale or transfer provides the amount of income the owner and owner’s family need after the owner’s exit.
2. The Right Person: The owner chooses his or her successor (children, key employees, co-owners, or a third party).
3. Income Tax Minimization: The owner minimizes the amount of cash the government takes out of his or her pocket.
A successful estate plan achieves three important personal goals:
1. Financial Security: For the decedent’s heirs.
2. The Right Person: The decedent (rather than the state) chooses who receives his or her estate assets.
3. Estate Tax Minimization: Reduces the government’s bite, leaving more funds for the decedent’s heirs.
Full disclosure: Wealth preservation planning can’t help any of us cheat death, but it can help business owners avoid taxes and achieve financial security.
The ideal Exit Plan (one that provides the business exit you desire) includes a strategy to help you preserve your hard-earned wealth from unnecessary taxation when it is transferred to your family. However, to preserve wealth, business owners must take steps before they actually have wealth. In other words, to realize all of the potential benefits of various wealth preservation techniques, owners must make plans before they convert the value of their businesses to cash.
The foundation for wealth preservation planning is found in the answers to two of the questions in Step One of The BEI Seven Step Exit Planning Process™:
1. How much wealth do you want when you exit your company? (Additionally, for parents, how much wealth do you want your children to have?)
2. How long before you leave your company?
Imagine that on the eve of your wedding, you make a plan to divorce your spouse, on friendly terms, in about 15 years. During those 15 years, you agree to work diligently and successfully to build a business. On the preordained day that your marriage ends, you announce that you are willing to give your soon-to-be ex-spouse one-half of your company’s business value in cash. Additionally, you let your ex-spouse value your company, because those are the terms of the agreement the two of you signed a year after you were married.
Though this scenario may seem ridiculous, you may have done something quite similar in your business with your co-owners.
There is a strong case for creating a Buy-Sell Agreement for co-owned businesses. If owners agree about how to appraise business value and set the terms of payment in advance of any transfer event, they can avoid the heated and often damaging negotiations that can occur when one owner leaves the company.
In this issue, we continue making our case for Buy-Sell Agreements by outlining several other advantages of a well-drafted and recently reviewed Buy-Sell Agreement.
Contemplating one’s own demise can be challenging but is paramount to sole owners and their businesses. Consider the fictional Harry Withers, the 54-year-old owner of Withering Hikes, a chain of seven retail apparel stores for outdoor enthusiasts on the Western Slope of the Rocky Mountains. One day, Harry disappeared while scouting new hiking trails.
After several months of fruitless searching, Harry’s family opened probate proceedings only to find that Harry’s once-thriving business also had disappeared. However, Withering Hikes’s disappearance was far more typical than Harry’s. Because Harry had dreamed of selling his company at 60, he had given little thought to what would happen to his business if something happened to him. Thus, Withering Hikes died of all-too-common causes—human error and neglect—setting off a chain reaction of ever-worsening consequences for Harry’s family and business:
If you co-own your business, the business-continuity agreement (or buy-sell agreement) is one of the most important documents that you will sign. If you have a buy-sell agreement that is out-of-date, not reviewed, or focuses on the wrong issues, it may be worse than having no agreement at all.
Let’s start with a hypothetical case study that illustrates the importance of drafting a buy-sell agreement that anticipates and provides for all transfer events (lifetime transfers, disability, or death).
Steve Smith was no different than millions of other baby-boomer business owners in that the thought of leaving his business was never far from his mind, no matter how far away his exit might have been. He daydreamed about transferring the business to his oldest daughter and perhaps to a member of his management team, yet he couldn’t gauge their passion for owning a business and hadn’t tested their management skills.
And, of course, they had no money.
Steve’s company was his economic and financial lifeline. Without its income, his ability to use the business to accumulate wealth, the ability to sell his interest to a buyer who had cash, and a plan, Steve’s wishes would never come true. To Steve, it was obvious that if he ever wanted to exit his business in style, he needed to wait for a white-knight buyer to appear on his doorstep bearing saddlebags of cash. So, Steve did what many other owners in his position do: nothing.
Today, we discuss the essential elements of a plan owners use to transfer a business to insiders that keep the owner in control until he or she is paid the sale price. If you suspect that the children, key employees, or co-owners you would pick to succeed you do not have the funds to cash you out, consider the following 10 elements that make insider transfers successful.